A while back, I noticed a lot of Python projects were starting to contain a file called ‘tox.ini’, which is a file read by tox.
Of course, the tox documentation should be considered the canonical source. It has lots of good examples, but I still found the docs a bit confusing at first, so I thought I would take my own shot at explaining the basics.
This is what a complete tox.ini file might look like:
At first, it was unclear to me what the point was at all, because we were already either using unittest or nose to actually run the tests. If we already have a test framework, why do we need yet another tool?
The problem that tox is trying to solve is that your tests might be run using multiple tools in a variety of different environments. So, for example, you might want to run Python unit tests using the standard unittest tool, as well as check your style with a tool like flake8, and your code coverage with a tool like coveralls. You want to run these tools using both Python 2.7 and Python 3. That means you have 3 different tools and 2 different environments. Tox helps you declare how all of this gets pieced together in one spot, and helps manage situations like different environments requiring different dependencies.
This combination of environments is generally what you specify at the top of the tox file underneath the [tox] directive, like so:
In the above example, we are creating 14 different environment names, 2 environments on the first line and 12 environments on the second line. Using the braces means we want to repeat each of the factors in the braces for a different environment. So the first line creates two environments, py26-django15 and py26-django16. The second line creates 12 more environments, combining each of the three versions of Python that we specify with each of the 4 different versions of Django that we specify.
Following that, we can put all our default settings that applies to all environments underneath the [testenv] directive:
Next, we configure specific environments by adding a a directive with the environment name after the colon, so to setup configuration specific to the Python 2.6/Django1.5 environment we created above we would add:
and then we would put everything specific to that environment underneath it.
Until we configure an environment, it’s doesn’t have any special meaning. py26-django15 is just a name until we use the basepython directive to match the py26 “factor” to the python2.6 executable, and the deps command to match django15 “factor” to the Django1.5 dependency.
Here is how we can match our Python environment names to the correct Python executable:
Note how we are individually referencing just part of the environment name , or factor, such as py26, and tox is smart enough to match that base command with all the complete environment names that contain the py26 factor.
We also need to add the correct dependencies, which we might do something like this:
My first question upon seeing the deps field in tox was, why are we using tox to manage dependencies? I thought the general Python best practice was to combine a requirements.txt file with something like pip?
While pip is a popular approaches to dependency management, it’s not the only ones, and tox tries to remain somewhat agnostic and not rely on pip or the existence of a requirements.txt . However, if your dependencies are nicely captured in a requirements.txt file, tox supports that:
Finally, we need to give tox something to actually run our commands. This is literally just the command we need to run, so it’s something as simple as:
With all this done, we can just run ‘tox’ and all our commands will be run for each of our environments.
So that’s a basic introduction to tox and why you would use it. A lot of this information is a rehash from the tox documentation, and of course the best way to learn is by example, for which you can find many on the tox site and floating around on Github. The Google Cloud Devrel team plans to use tox to automate much of our testing work, especially since we are trying to improve the automated testing of our sample code, so you can check out our usages of tox in any Python repo on our Github organization.
“Every man is a poet” – Post Office, Charles Bukowski